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Umar, I will not yield to your commands: I shall not pledge loyalty to him.' Ultimately Abu Bakr said, "O 'Ali!If you do not desire to give your bay'ah, I am not going to force you for the same.Ibn Qutaybah, a 9th-century Sunni Islamic scholar narrates of Ali: I am the servant of God and the brother of the Messenger of God. I shall not give allegiance to you [Abu Bakr & Umar] when it is more proper for you to give bay’ah to me.You have seized this office from the Ansar using your tribal relationship to the Prophet as an argument against them.This sermon included Muhammad's declaration that "to whomsoever I am Mawla, Ali is also their Mawla." After the sermon, Muhammad instructed everyone to pledge allegiance to Ali. Look into its clear verses and do not follow its ambiguous parts, for by Allah, none shall be able to explain to you its warnings and its mysteries, nor shall anyone clarify its interpretation, other than the one that I have grasped his hand, brought up beside myself, [and lifted his arm,] the one about whom I inform you that whomever I am his master (Mawla), then Ali is his master (Mawla); and he is Ali Ibn Abi Talib, my brother, the executor of my will (Wasiyyi), whose appointment as your guardian and leader has been sent down to me from Allah, the mighty and the majestic.
Shia scholars emphasize that the notion of authority is linked to the family of the prophets as the verses ,34 shows: "Indeed, Allah chose Adam and Noah and the family of Abraham and the family of 'Imran over the worlds – (33) Descendants, some of them from others. (34)" Shia Muslims believe that just as a prophet is appointed by God alone, only God has the prerogative to appoint the successor to his prophet.
At present, the word refers to the Muslims who believe that the leadership of the community after Muhammad belongs to Ali and his successors.
Nawbakhti states that the term Shia refers to a group of Muslims that at the time of Muhammad and after him regarded Ali as the Imam and Caliph.
When Muhammad died in 632 CE, Ali and Muhammad's closest relatives made the funeral arrangements.
While they were preparing his body, Abu Bakr, Umar, and Abu Ubaidah ibn al Jarrah met with the leaders of Medina and elected Abu Bakr as caliph.